Critical metals and rare earths
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While energy transition policies are theoretically and gradually reducing reliance on fossil energy production, they are creating new dependencies on other resources. These include critical metals.

«The geopolitical component of new energy policies and investments in renewable energies has not been widely explored. Such was the objective of the GENERATE (Geopolitics of renewable energies and prospective analysis of the energy transition) ANR project that we realized with the IRIS (French Institute for International and Strategic Relations): study the future of energy geopolitics in the context of the low carbon transition. Our analysis examines the geopolitical consequences of the dissemination of renewable energies in the global energy mix; including, the assessment of the criticality of materials used in energy transition technologies. We propose a decision-making tool to support the introduction of international energy and climate policies.»

Emmanuel Hache, GENERATE project manager, IFPEN (2018 - 2020)


Métaux critiques et terres rares


Decoding keys > Metals in the energy transition






Arnaud Baudot

  • Program manager "Recycling of battery metals"

Magalie Roy-Auberger

  • Program manager "Recycling of catalyst metals"

Jérôme Sabathier

  • Head Economics & Environmental Evaluation Department
Emmanuel HACHE

Emmanuel HACHE

Economist-Foresight, Economics and Environmental Evaluation Department, Economics and Technology Intelligence Division,