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Antoine FECANT

Research engineer / Project manager
Antoine Fécant holds an engineering degree from the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (2004) and a DEA (Master degree) from the University of Lille I the same year. He then obtained a PhD
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Research Engineer / Project Leader
Organic Geochemistry PhD.
Sciences of the Earth and the Universe HDR
Maria-Fernanda Romero-Sarmiento joined IFP Energies nouvelles in 2010 as a research scientist in organic geochemistry. She holds a Ph.D. in Organic Geochemistry from the University of Lille (France)
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Materials & Corrosion Technical Advisor, Project manager
PhD in Electrochemistry
> 20 years experience in Materials and Corrosion. Materials Engineer from INSA de Lyon, 1997. PhD in Eectrochemistry (Paris 6), 2001. Habilitation from INSA de Lyon, 2011. Member of Cefracor / EFC /
Carnot IFPEN Ressources Energétiques
Innovation and Industry

IFPEN Ressources Energétiques Carnot Institute

Carnot IFPEN Ressources énergétiques

Reinforcing and accelerating R&I  

In 2020, IFPEN’s energy resources activities were awarded the “Carnot Institute” label, in recognition of the numerous active collaborative initiatives with economic players and academia, in France and around the world.  IFPEN Ressources Energétiques is now one of the 39 members of the Carnot network, initially for a period of four years.

Created by the French Ministry for Higher Education, Research and Innovation in 2006, the label is awarded to public laboratories very actively involved in partnership research with a view to supporting company innovation and the country’s growth.

Distributed throughout France, the Carnot Institutes work in synergy to pursue a common objective: to prepare the industrial and economic future, accelerating the transfer of research technologies to the socio-economic world.

Addressing the energy transition challenge

The IFPEN Ressources Energétiques Carnot Institute (IFPEN RE) is resolutely committed to the energy transition, seeking to: 

Supporting innovation in SMEs

In addition to the development of new energy technologies, IFPEN RE is committed to: 
-    proactively increasing the number of partnerships with intermediate-sized companies, SMEs and start-ups; 
-    enabling the Carnot Institute network to benefit from its international development expertise and also drawing on feedback in return.

A dense partnership network

The IFPEN Ressources Energétiques Carnot Institute enjoys close ties with industry, from micro-companies, SMEs and intermediate-sized companies through to major French and international industrial groups.

Moreover, it is actively involved in numerous international, European and national collaborative structures, placing it at the heart of a dense research partnership network.

Internationally, the IFPEN RE Carnot Institute has close ties with numerous Research Technology Organizations (RTOs), particularly via framework agreements and strategic partnerships.  Carnot research enjoys a high profile and more than half of its A-list publications are the fruit of cooperative international activities.  In addition it is a stakeholder in numerous world-leading scientific organizations and represents France on the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency’s Technological Cooperation Program, IEA Wind

In Europe, the IFPEN RE Carnot Institute is positioned as a key player in the European Research Area (ERA) and works in synergy with platforms such as ETIP-DG in order to define industry’s needs and development opportunities in the geothermal energy sector.  In the field of CCUS, it also actively contributes to European networks such as ECCSEL and the ZEP platform to accelerate the deployment of these technologies.  In the field of geosciences, it contributes to the development of ground management solutions with the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA).

Nationally, the IFPEN RE Carnot Institute is an active contributor to the ANCRE research alliance, of which IFPEN is a founding member, and that of AllEnvi, dedicated to energy and the environment respectively.  It also participates in other themed structures, such as the  AVENIA competitiveness cluster dedicated to geosciences, the Club CO2 in the field of CCS, which it chairs, the EVOLEN association promoting French technological excellence, the CITEPH Open Innovation program supporting the development of SMEs and intermediate-sized companies in the energy field, and the Convergence Data IA Institute dedicated to digital technology.  
The IFPEN RE Carnot Institute also works closely with the university community and other public research organizations.  Finally, it is actively involved in demonstration projects within the framework of the French Investments for the Future Programs (PIA) supported by Ademe.

Expertise and skills  

•    Descriptive and quantitative geosciences 
•    Fluid, solid and structural mechanics 
•    Molecular and thermodynamic modeling 
•    Physical chemistry of complex materials and fluids 
•    Physics and Analysis 
•    Biotechnologies 
•    Chemical engineering and technologies  
•    Process design and modeling  
•    System modeling and simulation 
•    Digital science and technology 


Issues and Foresight

Reducing industrial CO2 emissions: CO2 capture and storage

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology consists in capturing CO2 from its source of production and storing it in an underground facility. It is of interest to industrial players since it would enable them to significantly reduce their CO2 emissions. But this promising solution still has to demonstrate that its implementation on an industrial scale is feasible at a reasonable cost.

Captage et stockage du CO2


Climate, environment and circular economy
Innovation and Industry

Climate, environment and circular economy

New R&I themes, stimulated by the energy transition and circular economy markets, are beginning to emerge. The multidisciplinarity of IFPEN’s researchers is used in projects covering fields as diverse as CO2 capture/storage and plastics recycling, addressing the problems of industry.


CO2 capture, storage and use
Innovation and Industry

Our strengths

Carnot IFPEN Ressources EnergétiquesCO2 capture, storage and use   
Our strengths

Long-standing expertise in the field of gas treatment with a focus now on CO2 capture processes.

A pioneer in the development of post-combustion capture technologies, notably steering the European CASTOR project.

Unique experimental facilities  for CLC oxycombustion capture technology:
o    cold model
o    10kW pilot
o    atomizer for particle production

Exhaustive geoscience expertise enabling us to propose solutions for large-scale and secure CO2 storage: validated expertise throughout the storage chain, via numerous collaborative projects including:

  • screening of an aquifer (the Ademe France Nord project)
  • assessment of storage sites (European SiteChar project, coordinated by IFPEN and winner of the Etoiles de l’Europe award)
  • monitoring and surveillance of a storage facility (European CO2Remove project)
  • abandonment study (European CO2Care project)
  • long-term surveillance tools (European Mirecol project)

Expertise in the field of Life Cycle Analysis enabling an exhaustive technical, economic and environmental approach to CCUS research.


CO2 capture, storage and use
Innovation and Industry

Our networks

Carnot IFPEN Ressources EnergétiquesCO2 capture, storage and use
Our networks 

In the field of CCUS (CO2 capture, use and storage), IFPEN is at the heart of a dense network of collaborations with industry and academia on a national, European and global level. IFPEN is also a member of the ZEP European Technological Platform and the  ECCSEL European research infrastructure. In addition, Florence Delprat-Jannaud, manager of IFPEN’s "CO2: capture, storage, recovery and negative emissions" program, chairs the 34-member CO2 Club, which aims to facilitate the deployment of the French CCUS sector by developing actions relating to managing risks, supporting the debate, reinforcing competitiveness and creating a legal framework.



In 2019, IFPEN signed a R&D partnership with Total (becomed TotalEnergies) on the development of technologies for capturing, storing and using CO2, for a period of 5 years. This partnership plans to strengthen the already existing collaboration between the two organizations, in order to meet the objectives of reducing the cost of CCUS technologies and improving their efficiency for large-scale deployment. The partnership notably includes a Chair agreement "Carbon management and negative CO2 emissions to net-zero carbon future" (CarMA) with IFP School in order to train new researchers and international experts in the challenges of technologies for reducing atmospheric CO2.



H2020 3D Project: CO2 capture at ArcelorMittal's steelworks site in Dunkirk

The european H2020  3D (DMX™ Demonstration in Dunkirk) project, coordinated by IFPEN, brings together 11 partners and is aimed at demonstrating the DMX process developed by IFPEN on an industrial unit at a steelworks site. This project is part of a wider program to develop a future European CO2 capture-storage cluster in Dunkirk and the North Sea.
It comprises three key steps:
-    Creation of a pilot unit in 2021 to demonstrate the performance of the DMX™ process developed by IFPEN, with a capacity to capture 0.5 metric tons of CO2 per hour from steel industry flue gases, prior to marketing by Axens
-    Design of an industrial unit in 2026 with a capacity to capture 1 million metric tons of CO2 per year, of the 11.8 million tons emitted at the site.
-    Preparation of the future European Dunkirk - North Sea cluster, which should be able to capture, pack, transport and store 10 Mt of CO2 per year.

To find out more  -> the 3D project on video.

ADEME DinamX Project: demonstration on an industrial pilote of the DMX™ process

The four-year ADEME Dinamx “Demonstration and innovative applications of the DMX™ process” project was launched in 2020 with partners IFPEN, TotalEnergies Refining & Chemicals and ArcelorMittal France. Coordinated by Axens, the objective is to demonstrate, as a complement to the 3D project (see above), the DMX™ process designed to capture carbon dioxide from blast furnace gases and extend its scope of application to other types of emitters in order to reduce CO2 emissions in France. Other applications will be examined with a view to validating the potential benefits of the process for cement works, glassworks, urban heating and electricity production from biomass.

Find out more about DinamX.

H2020 CHEERS Project: demonstration of an innovative chemical loop combustion process

Logo Cheers

IFPEN is contributing to the Cheers project, co-financed by the European Union (Horizon 2020 program) and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.  Lasting 5 years (2018/2022), CHEERS brings together long-standing CCUS chain players, including IFPEN, Sintef (project coordinator), TotalEnergies, Tsinghua University and Dongfang Boiler.

The Cheers project is aimed at demonstrating the operational nature of the CLC technology in a scenario identified by TotalEnergies: enable a refinery to use petcoke (a solid hydrocarbon, the final residue left by petroleum conversion processes)  to produce electricity and steam without generating CO2 emissions. To achieve this, a dedicated demonstration unit, with a capacity of 3MWth, based on IFPEN technology, will be designed, built and operated at an experimental site run by the energy company Dongfang in China.

Within the project, IFPEN is responsible for evaluating the performance of the CLC process in the complete CCUS chain. IFPEN is also involved in the selection of the metal oxide to be used as the oxygen carrier, the engineering studies, as well as the construction and performance of tests.

CHEERS will validate the technological concepts paving the way for the transition to the industrial step, in particular the control of circulation of the oxygen carrier, which is the key element in the operation of the CLC process tested. The success of the project will position IFPEN, in partnership with TotalEnergies, as a world leader in the field of CLC technology, and an industrial first may well be achieved within the next ten years or so. This would pave the way for the broad dissemination of the technology to major industrial facilities faced with the challenge of producing low-carbon energy to operate, such as electric power plants or refineries.

Choice of storage sites

H2020 STRATEGY CCUS Project: study of several European regions to assess their CCUS capacities

Strategy CCUS

The H2020 Strategy CCUS project,  carried out from 2019 to 2021 with 16 European partners and coordinated by the BRGM, was aimed to develop strategic plans for the development of CCUS, a key technology to achieve the GHG reduction objectives of the Paris Agreement, in Europe from South and East. It was also aimed to reflect on the construction of a CCUS infrastructure at European level.
As part of this project, three regions in southern Europe were selected for an in-depth study of their potential for CO2 capture, storage and use. IFPEN has participated in the development and assessment of scenarios for each of the three sites.


H2020 PilotSTRATEGY Project: development of CCUS in Southern and Eastern Europe





The PilotSTRATEGY project, an extension of the StrategyCCUS project, was launched in 2021 for five years. It is coordinated by BRGM and conducted with 16 other partners. 
PilotStrategy aims to characterize five regions in Europe (France, Spain, Portugal, Greece and Poland) as potential CO2 geological storage areas. The objective for the first three regions is to carry out the preliminary studies necessary for the implementation of a CO2 storage pilot.
IFPEN's work concerns the French pilot site located in the Paris basin. The work involves characterizing the petrophysical and mechanical properties of the bedrock from samples, building the corresponding geological model and simulating the injection of CO2 in order to optimize the placement of the well and simulate the geochemical and geomechanical effects induced by the storage.

H2020 Rex-CO2 Project: re-using end-of-life oil and gas wells for CO2 storage

Launched in 2019 for a period of three years, the European REX-CO2 (Re-using EXisting wells for CO2 storage operations) project is aimed at developing a numerical tool to help stakeholders make informed decisions regarding the potential re-use of oil and gas production wells for CO2 storage. IFPEN’s participation in the REX-CO2 project concerns the various steps involved in the development of the tool, from the definition of its architecture through to experimental tests aimed at characterizing steel / cement / well rock interfaces, via numerical simulations of the immediate environment. 


H2020 SECURe project: for the continuous monitoring of CO2 storage sites

The 4-year SECURe (Subsurface Evaluation of CCS and Unconventional Risks) project, launched in 2018 with 17 partners, is aimed at testing and improving existing technologies designed for the continuous monitoring of CO2 storage sites.
This project is an opportunity for IFPEN to validate its global solution composed of a downhole sampler and an analysis booth developed in partnership with EMM Logging on a real site. The aquifer studied within the framework of this validation is a geothermal site containing a low quantity of the dissolved gas. This test will make it possible to verify the validity of the solution for monitoring both a geological CO2 storage site in zones of low quantities of dissolved gas (monitoring of the dissolved CO2 plume, of a CO2 leak) and a geothermal site (site integrity monitoring). 

Sense project: for the reliable and cost-effective monitoring of CO2 storage sites

The SENSE project, coordinated by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), was launched in 2019 for a period of 4 years.  It is aimed at developing a reliable, continuous and economical monitoring methodology based on the detection of ground movements combined with modeling and geomechanical inversion. In particular, the research draws on new technological developments, as well as the optimization and automation of data processing and interpretation. 

ADEME Aquifer-CO2Leak project: new tools guaranteeing the safe usage of the underground environment

The Aquifer-CO2Leak project was launched in 2018 for a period of 4 years to fine-tune existing methodologies and develop new tools designed to ensure the integrity of underground storage sites. This project is a follow-on from the Vadose (2009-2013) and Demo-CO2 (2013-2017).
The Aquifer-CO2Leak project is studying an unclassified underground aquifer below Saint-Émilion via the injection and modeling of a CO2 plume monitoring system and the measurement and monitoring of UZ tracers.

The objectives are multiple:
•    to develop dedicated instruments for geo-electrical and geochemical monitoring,
•    to define the relevance of tracing using fluorescence and identify new technologies for CO2 leak detection,
•    to develop numerical and analytical leak detection and location methods,
•    to assess the environmental impact of a CO2 leak and other gas leaks on the water of aquifers.
This project will be an opportunity to test and validate the interest of our continuous fixed monitoring station, at depths of between 10 and 100 meters.

ADEME GecoSampa project: an on-site geochemical monitoring and analysis tool 

The GeCO SampA project (2018-2020) has allowed to develop an on-site geochemical monitoring and analysis tool for the management of energy storage and conversion projects.
The technology that was developed enables, owing to a constant-pressure fluid transfer, to determine a geochemical composition fully representative of that found deep underground and hence better interpret the impact of the industrial process being monitored. Both our downhole fluid sampler and the entire methodology that we have developed were tested in real conditions. Work continues within the framework of the SECURe European project.


H2020 Sun2Chem project: for an efficient reduction in CO2 emissions using solar energy

The European H2020 Sun2Chem project was launched in 2020. Coordinated by the Ecole polytechnique de Lausanne, Sun2Chem is aimed at developing solutions for the efficient solar-driven reduction in CO2. The objective is to convert CO2 into ethylene. IFPEN’s contribution concerns the development of catalysts for the photoreduction of CO2 and the performance of economic and environmental assessments of this process.



GEFISS project: an extended governance of subsoil engineering sectors

Logo Gefiss

Gefiss (2018-2022) is led by the Géodénergies SIG and coordinated by the Avenia competitiveness cluster. The objective is to come up with new forms of dialog concerning projects relating to the use of underground resources and the conditions for their execution. The underground engineering projects relating to deep geothermal energy, the exploitation of helium and the storage of gas or CO2 are often challenged and even opposed by civil society stakeholders, which it is important to consider in a co-construction process between the different players concerned. The project brings together an interdisciplinary team made up of a consulting firm, engineering companies, administrative authorities, a research center, and universities in the fields of law and representation of the territory.

CO2 capture, storage and use
Innovation and Industry

Our solutions

Carnot IFPEN Ressources EnergétiquesCO2 capture, storage and use   
Our solutions

IFPEN develops innovations across the CCUS value chain:



In post-combustion : DMX™ process with demixing solvent

The DMX™ process is dedicated to capturing the CO2 in the emissions of industrial facilities: coal-fired power plants, cement plants, steel works, etc. The idea is to improve the performance of traditional amine-based processes, which consume a significant amount of energy for solvent regeneration. Energy savings of between 30 and 40% are expected. Our solution is based on a high cyclic capacity solvent that decants in two phases, with only the CO2 rich phase sent to regeneration. The chemical stability of this last phase also makes it possible to operate this regeneration at a modified temperature and thus produce CO2 at a pressure (up to 6 Consequently, it is possible to save two compression stages compared to traditional processes. The tests conducted on a mini-pilot facility at our Solaize site demonstrated the efficiency of the DMX™ process on a small scale and on synthetic gas. We have now launched an industrial-scale demonstration on steel industry exhaust gas, in partnership with ArcelorMittal, TotalEnergies and Axens.

Image Solutions CCUS
DMX process pilot unit


In oxycombustion : chemical loop combustion

IFPEN is developing an innovative CO2 capture process using Chemical Looping Combustion, or CLC. The research has been conducted in partnership with Total (becomed TotalEnergies) since 2008. Large-scale performance is the subject of the Chinese-European H2020 CHEERS project.

Chemical looping combustion consists in concentrating the CO2 directly in combustion flue gases (concentration above 90%) to make it easier to separate from other components. To do this, a metal oxide is used that, on contact with the feed (natural gas, coal, petcoke, biomass, etc.), releases the oxygen required for combustion, producing effluents made up of steam and CO2 alone: it is then easy to isolate the CO2 simply by condensing the steam. The great advantage of the process is being able to achieve this separation without the need for an additional step. As such, its energy footprint is superior to that of its competitors. This research has been the subject of numerous patents and] has been validated using several cold models and on a 10kW pilot unit. It benefits from the expertise of IFPEN's teams in fluidized beds and materials.

Pilote CLC IFPEN/Total à IFPEN-Lyon
CLC IFPEN/TotalEnergies pilot at IFPEN-Lyon



Securing CO2 storage: CooresFlow simulation software

The CooresFlow research software is an integrated multi-physics, multi-scale simulation solution covering all the stages in the lifecycle of a storage facility.  It has been developed in partnership with an oil company and a gas storage company. 

CooresFlow is used to simulate fluid flows, transport of chemical species via these fluids and also the interactions between the rock and fluids. This makes it possible to predict:

  • the evolution of fluid composition and the porous medium,
  • its impact on flows.

This software stands out on the market on several fronts:

  • its integrated interface, making it possible to create a model, launch a simulation and visualize the results,
  • its flexibility,
  • and its calculation performance: it supports complex meshing with potential refinement over time.

Simulation injection CO2

Its broad scope of application makes it suitable for use in the laboratory and out in the field; from well scale, through to site or even basin scale.

CooresFlow can be useful:
•    in the storage site selection and design phases, in order to limit risks,
•    in the surveillance phase during and after the injection phase, to help position the monitoring tools, adapt the frequency of measurements or simulate the future of the CO2 stored by updating the reactive transport model from these measurements.

CO2 storage monitoring

IFPEN is developing technologies for monitoring CO2 storage sites in the framework of various French and European research projects.

  • Deep leak detection: downhole sampler and analysis booth

    The tools developed by IFPEN and its industrial partner SEMM Logging allow to calculate the geochemical composition of a fluid at different locations in aquifers or reservoirs, without needing to take a large number of samples.

    The calculation takes place in three stages:

    •    Taking a sample of fluid at a given depth with a downhole sampler, operating at depths ranging from 200 meters to up to 3,500 meters in a well,

    Depth sampler

    •    The transfer of the fluid into the T555 transfer cell for the analysis of the gas composition by a micro-chromatograph directly on site:

    •    Data analysis and interpretation carried out using a thermodynamic model developed from the IFPEN thermodynamic database, which makes it possible to anticipate the composition analyzed under other conditions of temperature and pressure of the reservoir.

    T555 Transfer Cell
  • Shallow leak detection: multi-gas monitoring station

    To address the specific challenges of shallow aquifers, potable and potentially potable groundwater and the soil (UZ or Unsaturated Zone), a fixed multi-gas monitoring station has been developed. It is intended to monitor the emission rates of CO2 and other gases on the ground. Its function is twofold:
    •    to measure the baseline of a site before the start of any industrial or agricultural activities,
    •    and to monitor the evolution of CO2 emissions.
    This continuous monitoring equipment offers a multi-parameter, multi-tracer approach. The station was tested and validated in one of the gallery cavities of the Saint-Émilion natural site as part of the ADEME Demo-CO2 project, in partnership with Bordeaux INP. This equipment is also used to monitor an unclassified aquifer in the context of the Aquifer-CO2Leak project.




CO2 can be considered as raw material to produce other molecules. IFPEN, through the Sun2Chem project, is participating with its partners in the development of a process to obtain ethylene from CO2, using solar energy.

CO2 capture, storage and use
Innovation and Industry

CO2 capture, storage and use

Carnot IFPEN Ressources EnergétiquesCO2 capture, storage and use

An international context marked by:

  • the Paris Agreements and the French Climate Plan,
  • a target of limiting the overall increase in global temperature to below 2°C by 2100: a more than 40% reduction in global CO2 emissions by 2040 is currently required to achieve this target,
  • the creation of the Oil and Gas Climate Initiative (OGCI): 13 international oil companies have joined forces to contribute to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, particularly those resulting from the extraction and consumption of oil and gas in the electricity production and heating sectors, the industrial sector and the transport sector. The OGCI has an investment fund amounting to one billion dollars. Its members identify CCS as an essential technology that must be rolled out over the years to come.

Different solutions should be combined to achieve this objective:

  • improve energy efficiency,
  • development of renewable energies,
  • CO2 capture and storage (CCS).

Industries concerned by CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and storage) are heavy industries, which currently do not have access to substitution technologies to significantly reduce their CO2 emissions:

  • steelmaking,
  • cement plants,
  • refining,
  • chemicals,
  • petrochemicals.

The principal obstacles to be overcome linked to the deployment of CCS concern all market segments:

  • reduce the cost of capture technologies. Capture remains the most costly step in the CCS process, representing between 65 and 75% of the overall cost. The challenges relate to the development of technologies that are as efficient as possible, in particular reducing their energy penalty,
  • study the transport map (boats and gas pipelines) in terms of the location of capture facilities with respect to storage sites, and develop the transport of liquid CO2 by boat,
  • demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, secure storage in deep saline aquifers and develop long-term control and monitoring technologies,
  • develop economic analyses and life cycle analyses (LCAs) to quantify environmental benefits compared to:
    • a scenario without CCS,
    • alternative processes,
  • propose stakeholder mobilization practices in order to encourage an informed dialog around projects and define the conditions for their execution.


The deployment of CCS represents a veritable challenge: it will require the construction, over a period of 25 years, of an industry comparable in size to that of the oil industry: CO2 capture facilities with a cumulative size comparative to that of the global refining industry, transport networks comparable to those of natural gas transport, and storage infrastructures comparable to those found on the biggest oil fields.

CCUS will prevent the emission of some 8.2 billion tonnes of CO2 between now and 2060, representing 14% of the reduction needed (IEA, BLUE Map scenario).

IFPEN has long since been positioned throughout the CCS value chain:
•  develop economically accessible capture processes
•  create large-scale, secure storage technologies
to reduce CO2 emissions and tackle global warming.

Our solutions

Our networks 

Our strengths