Offshore wind and ocean energies
OVERVIEW AND CHALLENGES
The global development of ocean renewable energies (ORE) is being driven by several factors:
- evolving technologies,
- a cost per kWh that is constantly falling,
- managed environmental impacts,
- the wider consultation of other ocean users (fishing industry, leisure usages, etc.) upstream of projects.
There is significant potential in Europe to develop ocean renewable energy within a sector that is growing fast. At the end of 2019, fixed offshore wind farms represented an installed power of 22.1 GW. Excluding the UK, it was 12 GW. The European Commission has ambitions to increase this to 60 GW by 2030 and more than 300 GW by 2050. This production capacity will be reinforced by 40 GW generated from other ocean energy sources, such as floating wind and solar technologies.
France will soon catch up with other countries, such as the UK and the Netherlands. The objective set out by the public authorities within the framework of the French long-term energy plan (PPE) is to achieve an installed ocean wind energy capacity – fixed and floating – of 2.4 GW in 2023 and around 5 GW in 2028. In the floating wind energy sector, the State finances innovative projects such as pilot farms and has launched a call for bids for a commercial farm.
IFPEN’s priority is offshore wind, particularly floating, and wave energy conversion systems.
It develops innovative technological solutions aimed at reducing the cost of electricity production associated with ORE and, more particularly, floating offshore wind turbines, and it supports the deployment of new industrial sectors for the energy transition.
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