Globally, the transport sector is responsible for 23% of greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs). To reduce them, there is a significant shift towards electric energy:
- across all market segments:
- private vehicles: from small, no-license cars (Aixam) to premium vehicles (BMW, Jaguar),
- heavy trucks,
- urban buses,
- in all countries,
- following the dieselgate scandal, there has been an acceleration in the development and marketing of all-electric vehicles, to complement the hybrid offer.
In addition, the electrification of transport makes it possible to:
- significantly reduce local pollutant and CO2 emissions,
- improve the energy footprint, thanks, for example, to braking energy recovery.
The technological efforts required concern:
- electrochemical storage solutions (batteries) and their control,
- electric machines and their associated power electronics (inverters and control),
- the electrification of powertrain functions such as the turbocharger,
- energy recovery systems, based on organic Rankine cycles (ORC) for example, to reuse the thermal energy lost in the cooling system or exhaust gases,
- integrated range extension systems such as micro-turbines and fuel cells.
A substantial reduction in sales prices, the roll-out of rapid recharging infrastructures and the development of government incentive policies to increase market shares are the three principal challenges to be met to ensure electric engines become a sustainable and large-scale alternative to IC engines in the global vehicle fleet.
Electric vehicles could make up between 6 and 9% of the global vehicle fleet by 2030 (compared to less than 1% in 2016) – Source Foley.